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Undifferentiated Schizophrenia Case Study Scribd App


CHAPTER 1Introduction

Paranoid schizophrenia is the most common type of schizophrenia in most parts of the world. The clinical picture is dominated by relatively stable, often paranoid, delusions,usually accompanied by hallucinations, particularly of the auditory variety, and perceptualdisturbances. Disturbances of affect, volition, and speech, and catatonic symptoms, are not prominent.With paranoid schizophrenia, your ability to think and function in daily life may be better than with other types of schizophrenia. You may not have as many problems withmemory, concentration or dulled emotions. Still, paranoid schizophrenia is a serious,lifelong condition that can lead to many complications, including suicidal behavior.(http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/paranoid-schizophrenia/DS00862)Patients who have paranoid schizophrenia that has thought disorder may be obviousin acute states, but if so it does not prevent the typical delusions or hallucinations from being described clearly. Affect is usually less blunted than in other varieties of schizophrenia, but a minor degree of incongruity is common, as are mood disturbancessuch as irritability, sudden anger, fearfulness, and suspicion. "Negative" symptoms such as blunting of affect and impaired volition are often present but do not dominate the clinical picture.The course of paranoid schizophrenia may be episodic, with partial or completeremissions, or chronic. In chronic cases, the florid symptoms persist over years and it isdifficult to distinguish discrete episodes. The onset tends to be later than in the hebephrenicand catatonic forms. (http://www.schizophrenia.com/szparanoid.htm)According to the World Health Organization, It describes statistics about mentaldisorders of year (2008). Schizophrenia is a severe form of mental illness affecting about 7 per thousand of the adult population, mostly in the age group 15-35 years. Though the


critical parents. Living in an urban environment during childhood or as an adult hasconsistently been found to increase the risk of schizophrenia by a factor of two, evenafter taking into accountdrug use,ethnic group,and size of social group.Other factorsthat play an important role includesocial isolationand immigration related to socialadversity, racial discrimination, family dysfunction, unemployment, and poor housingconditions. Childhood experiences of abuse or trauma are risk factors for a diagnosis of schizophrenia later in life.

Substance abuseA number of drugs have been associated with the development of schizophreniaincludingcannabis,cocaineandamphetamines.About half of those with schizophreniause drugs and/or alcohol excessively. The role of cannabis could be causal, but otherdrugs may be used only as coping mechanisms to deal with depression, anxiety,boredom, and loneliness.Cannabis isassociatedwith adose-dependentincrease in the risk of developinga psychotic disorder. Frequent use has been found to double the risk of psychosis andschizophrenia. Some research has however questioned the causality of thislink. Amphetamine, cocaine, and to a lesser extent alcohol, can result in psychosis thatpresents very similarly to schizophrenia.

PrenatalFactors such as hypoxia and infection, or stress and malnutrition in the motherduringfetal development,may result in a slight increase in the risk of schizophrenialater in life. People diagnosed with schizophrenia are more likely to have been born inwinter or spring (at least in thenorthern hemisphere), which may be a result of increased rates of viral exposuresin utero.This difference is about 5 to 8%.C.

IncidenceSchizophrenia affects around 0.3


0.7% of people at some point in their life, or24 million people worldwide as of 2011. It occurs 1.4 times more frequently in males thanfemales and typically appears earlier in men

the peak ages of onset are 20


28 years formales and 26


32 years for females.Onset in childhoodis much rarer, as is onset in middle-or old age. Despite the received wisdom that schizophrenia occurs at similar ratesworldwide, its prevalence varies across the world, within countries, and at the local andneighborhood level. It causes approximately 1% of worldwidedisability adjusted lifeyears.The rate of schizophrenia varies up to threefold depending on how it is defined.

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